There’s an excellent overview of MVC, MVP, MVVM, and VIPER in iOS with sample codes by Bohdan Orlov of Badoo I recommend you read.

There are two main takeaways:

  1. One of the commenters nailed it: any MV* variant focuses on architecting view components. Only VIPER takes the application as a whole into account. MVC by itself is an architectural pattern, but not an approach to app architecture in itself.
  2. A UIViewController belongs into the user interface layer and is, in fact, a composite view itself. That’s confusing at first because of the name. This insight will liberate you from thinking that a view controller is sufficient to glue data to UIKit components. There’s room for a whole application between these two.

The VIPER example is exceptionally good. It takes VIPER’s heritage of Clean Architecture and Hexagonal into account and defines the Interactor through an output port. In that way Bohdan’s sample code is more east-oriented and cleaner than what you’d usually find on the topic:

#!swift

protocol GreetingProvider {
    func provideGreetingData()
}

protocol GreetingOutput: class {
    func receiveGreetingData(greetingData: GreetingData)
}

class GreetingInteractor : GreetingProvider {
    weak var output: GreetingOutput!

    func provideGreetingData() {
        let person = Person(firstName: "David", lastName: "Blaine") // usually comes from data access layer
        let subject = person.firstName + " " + person.lastName
        let greeting = GreetingData(greeting: "Hello", subject: subject)
        self.output.receiveGreetingData(greeting)
    }
}

Usually, you’d model provideGreetingData() as a function that returns the data to the caller. This will cause trouble in async processes of course.

You see in the full example that the amount of types seem to explode. Don’t be afraid of that as long as you can assign each type a specific responsibility. Then it won’t turn into the mess everyone seems to be afraid of.

Having used VIPER in apps myself, I see a problem with the names, though. XYZInteractor and XYZPresenter aren’t much better than XYZController in terms of expressiveness. On top of that, a concrete Presenter is always modelled to act as event handler, too. Don’t let this fool you into thinking you absolutely have to do this yourself – there’s always room to separate writing from reading operations, or event handling from view population.